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中华人民共和国刑法(中英文翻译)

发表时间:2020-1-4  浏览次数:548  
字体大小: 【小】 【中】 【大】

中华人民共和国刑法
CRIMINAL LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
第一编 总则
PART ONE GENERAL PROVISIONS
第一章 刑法的任务、基本原则和适用范围
CHAPTER I THE AIM, BASIC PRINCIPLES AND SCOPE OF APPLICATION OF THE
第一条 为了惩罚犯罪,保护人民,根据宪法,结合我国同犯罪作斗争的具体经验及实际情况,制定本法。
Article 1 In order to punish crimes and protect the people, this Law is enacted on the basis of the Constitution and in the light of the concrete experiences and actual circumstances in China's fight against crimes.
 第二条 中华人民共和国刑法的任务,是用刑罚同一切犯罪行为作斗争,以保卫国家安全,保卫人民民主专政的政权和社会主义制度,保护国有财产和劳动群众集体所有的财产,保护公民私人所有的财产,保护公民的人身权利、民主权利和其他权利,维护社会秩序、经济秩序,保障社会主义建设事业的顺利进行。
Article 2 The aim of the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China is to use criminal punishments to fight against all criminal acts in order to safeguard security of the State, to defend the State power of the people's democratic dictatorship and the socialist system, to protect property owned by the State, and property collectively owned by the working people and property privately owned by citizens, to protect citizens' rights of the person and their democratic and other rights, to maintain public and economic order, and to ensure the smooth progress of socialist construction.
 第三条 法律明文规定为犯罪行为的,依照法律定罪处刑;法律没有明文规定为犯罪行为的,不得定罪处刑。
Article 3 For acts that are explicitly defined as criminal acts in law, the offenders shall be convicted and punished in accordance with law; otherwise, they shall not be convicted or punished.
 第四条 对任何人犯罪,在适用法律上一律平等。不允许任何人有超越法律的特权。
Article 4 The law shall be equally applied to anyone who commits a crime. No one shall have the privilege of transcending the law.
 第五条 刑罚的轻重,应当与犯罪分子所犯罪行和承担的刑事责任相适应。
Article 5 The degree of punishment shall be commensurate with the crime committed and the criminal responsibility to be borne by the offender.
 第六条 凡在中华人民共和国领域内犯罪的,除法律有特别规定的以外,都适用本法。
Article 6 This Law shall be applicable to anyone who commits a crime within the territory and territorial waters and space of the People's republic of China, except as otherwise specifically provided by law.
  凡在中华人民共和国船舶或者航空器内犯罪的,也适用本法。
This Law shall also be applicable to anyone who commits a crime on board a ship or aircraft of the People's Republic of China.
  犯罪的行为或者结果有一项发生在中华人民共和国领域内的,就认为是在中华人民共和国领域内犯罪。
If a criminal act or its consequence takes place within the territory or territorial waters or space of the People's Republic of China, the crime shall be deemed to have been committed within the territory and territorial waters and space of the People's Republic of China.
第七条 中华人民共和国公民在中华人民共和国领域外犯本法规定之罪的,适用本法,但是按本法规定的最高刑为三年以下有期徒刑的,可以不予追究。
Article 7 This Law shall be applicable to any citizen of the People's Republic of China who commits a crime prescribed in this Law outside the territory and territorial waters and space of the People's Republic of China; however, if the maximum punishment to be imposed is fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years as stipulated in this Law, he may be exempted from the investigation for his criminal responsibility.
  中华人民共和国国家工作人员和军人在中华人民共和国领域外犯本法规定之罪的,适用本法。
This Law shall be applicable to any State functionary or serviceman who commits a crime prescribed in this Law outside the territory and territorial waters and space of the People's Republic of China.
 第八条 外国人在中华人民共和国领域外对中华人民共和国国家或者公民犯罪,而按本法规定的最低刑为三年以上有期徒刑的,可以适用本法,但是按照犯罪地的法律不受处罚的除外。
Article 8 This Law may be applicable to any foreigner who commits a crime outside the territory and territorial waters and space of the People's Republic of China against the State of the People's Republic of China or against any of its citizens, if for that crime this Law prescribes a minimum punishment of fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years; however, this does not apply to a crime that is not punishable according to the laws of the place where it is committed.
 第九条 对于中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约所规定的罪行,中华人民共和国在所承担条约义务的范围内行使刑事管辖权的,适用本法。
Article 9 This Law shall be applicable to crimes which are stipulated in international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China and over which the People's Republic of China exercises criminal jurisdiction within the scope of obligations, prescribed in these treaties, it agrees to perform.
 第十条 凡在中华人民共和国领域外犯罪,依照本法应当负刑事责任的,虽然经过外国审判,仍然可以依照本法追究,但是在外国已经受过刑罚处罚的,可以免除或者减轻处罚。
Article 10 Any person who commits a crime outside the territory and territorial waters and space of the People's Republic of China, for which according to this Law he should bear criminal responsibility, may still be investigated for his criminal responsibility according to this Law, even if he has already been tried in a foreign country. However, if he has already received criminal punishment in the foreign country, he may be exempted from punishment or given a mitigated punishment.
 第十一条 享有外交特权和豁免权的外国人的刑事责任,通过外交途径解决。
Article 11 The criminal responsibility of foreigners who enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunities shall be solved through diplomatic channels.
 第十二条 中华人民共和国成立以后本法施行以前的行为,如果当时的法律不认为是犯罪的,适用当时的法律;如果当时的法律认为是犯罪的,依照本法总则第四章第八节的规定应当追诉的,按照当时的法律追究刑事责任,但是如果本法不认为是犯罪或者处刑较轻的,适用本法。
Article 12 If an act committed after the founding of the People's Republic of China and before the entry into force of this Law was not deemed a crime under the laws at the time, those laws shall apply.  If the act was deemed a crime under the laws in force at the time and is subject to prosecution under the provisions of Section 8, Chapter IV of the General Provisions of this Law, criminal responsibility shall be investigated in accordance with those laws. However, if according to this Law the act is not deemed a crime or is subject to a lighter punishment, this Law shall apply.
  本法施行以前,依照当时的法律已经作出的生效判决,继续有效。
Before the entry into force of this Law, any judgment that has been made and has become effective according to the laws at the time shall remain valid.
第一节 犯罪和刑事责任
SECTION 1 CRIMES AND CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY
 第十三条 一切危害国家主权、领土完整和安全,分裂国家、颠覆人民民主专政的政权和推翻社会主义制度,破坏社会秩序和经济秩序,侵犯国有财产或者劳动群众集体所有的财产,侵犯公民私人所有的财产,侵犯公民的人身权利、民主权利和其他权利,以及其他危害社会的行为,依照法律应当受刑罚处罚的,都是犯罪,但是情节显著轻微危害不大的,不认为是犯罪。
Article 13 A crime refers to an act that endangers the sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of the State, splits the State, subverts the State power of the people's democratic dictatorship and overthrows the socialist system, undermines public and economic order, violates State-owned property, property collectively owned by the working people, or property privately owned by citizens, infringes on the citizens' rights of the person, their democratic or other rights, and any other act that endangers society and is subject to punishment according to law. However, if the circumstances are obviously minor and the harm done is not serious, the act shall not be considered a crime.
 第十四条 明知自己的行为会发生危害社会的结果,并且希望或者放任这种结果发生,因而构成犯罪的,是故意犯罪。
Article 14 An intentional crime refers to an act committed by a person who clearly knows that his act will entail harmful consequences to society but who wishes or allows such consequences to occur, thus constituting a crime.
  故意犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
Criminal responsibility shall be borne for intentional crimes.
 第十五条 应当预见自己的行为可能发生危害社会的结果,因为疏忽大意而没有预见,或者已经预见而轻信能够避免,以致发生这种结果的,是过失犯罪。
Article 15 A negligent crime refers to an act committed by a person who should have foreseen that his act would possibly entail harmful consequences to society but who fails to do so through his negligence or, having foreseen the consequences, readily believes that they can be avoided, so that the consequences do occur.
  过失犯罪,法律有规定的才负刑事责任。
Criminal responsibility shall be borne for negligent crimes only when the law so provides.
 第十六条 行为在客观上虽然造成了损害结果,但是不是出于故意或者过失,而是由于不能抗拒或者不能预见的原因所引起的,不是犯罪。
Article 16 An act is not a crime if it objectively results in harmful consequences due to irresistible or unforeseeable causes rather than intent or negligence.
 第十七条 已满十六周岁的人犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
Article 17 If a person who has reached the age of 16 commits a crime, he shall bear criminal responsibility.
  已满十四周岁不满十六周岁的人,犯故意杀人、故意伤害致人重伤或者死亡、强奸、抢劫、贩卖毒品、放火、爆炸、投毒罪的,应当负刑事责任。
If a person who has reached the age of 14 but not the age of 16 commits intentional homicide, intentionally hurts another person so as to cause serious injury or death of the person, or commits rape, robbery, drug- trafficking, arson, explosion or poisoning, he shall bear criminal responsibility.
  已满十四周岁不满十八周岁的人犯罪,应当从轻或者减轻处罚。
If a person who has reached the age of 14 but not the age of 18 commits a crime, he shall be given a lighter or mitigated punishment.
  因不满十六周岁不予刑事处罚的,责令他的家长或者监护人加以管教;在必要的时候,也可以由政府收容教养。
If a person is not given criminal punishment because he has not reached the age of 16, the head of his family or his guardian shall be ordered to discipline him. When necessary, he may be taken in by the government for rehabilitation.
第十八条 精神病人在不能辨认或者不能控制自己行为的时候造成危害结果,经法定程序鉴定确认的,不负刑事责任,但是应当责令他的家属或者监护人严加看管和医疗;在必要的时候,由政府强制医疗。
Article 18 If a mental patient causes harmful consequences at a time when he is unable to recognize or control his own conduct, upon verification and confirmation through legal procedure, he shall not bear criminal responsibility, but his family members or guardian shall be ordered to keep him under strict watch and control and arrange for his medical treatment.  When necessary, the government may compel him to receive medical treatment.
  间歇性的精神病人在精神正常的时候犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
Any person whose mental illness is of an intermittent nature shall bear criminal responsibility if he commits a crime when he is in a normal mental state.
  尚未完全丧失辨认或者控制自己行为能力的精神病人犯罪的,应当负刑事责任,但是可以从轻或者减轻处罚。
If a mental patient who has not completely lost the ability of recognizing or controlling his own conduct commits a crime, he shall bear criminal responsibility; however, he may be given a lighter or mitigated punishment.
  醉酒的人犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
Any intoxicated person who commits a crime shall bear criminal responsibility.
 第十九条 又聋又哑的人或者盲人犯罪,可以从轻、减轻或者免除处罚。
Article 19 Any deaf-mute or blind person who commits a crime may be given a lighter or mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.
 第二十条 为了使国家、公共利益、本人或者他人的人身、财产和其他权利免受正在进行的不法侵害,而采取的制止不法侵害的行为,对不法侵害人造成损害的,属于正当防卫,不负刑事责任。
Article 20 An act that a person commits to stop an unlawful infringement in order to prevent the interests of the State and the public, or his own or other person's rights of the person, property or other rights from being infringed upon by the on-going infringement, thus harming the perpetrator, is justifiable defence, and he shall not bear criminal responsibility.
  正当防卫明显超过必要限度造成重大损害的,应当负刑事责任,但是应当减轻或者免除处罚。
If a person's act of justifiable defence obviously exceeds the limits of necessity and causes serious damage, he shall bear criminal responsibility; however, he shall be given a mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.
  对正在进行行凶、杀人、抢劫、强奸、绑架以及其他严重危及人身安全的暴力犯罪,采取防卫行为,造成不法侵害人伤亡的,不属于防卫过当,不负刑事责任。
If a person acts in defence against an on-going assault, murder, robbery, rape, kidnap or any other crime of violence that seriously endangers his personal safety, thus causing injury or death to the perpetrator of the unlawful act, it is not undue defence, and he shall not bear criminal responsibility.
 第二十一条 为了使国家、公共利益、本人或者他人的人身、财产和其他权利免受正在发生的危险,不得已采取的紧急避险行为,造成损害的,不负刑事责任。  
Article 21 If a person is compelled to commit an act in an emergency to avert an immediate danger to the interests of the State or the public, or his own or another person's rights of the person, property or other rights, thus causing damage, he shall not bear criminal responsibility.
紧急避险超过必要限度造成不应有的损害的,应当负刑事责任,但是应当减轻或者免除处罚。
If the act committed by a person in an emergency to avert danger exceeds the limits of necessity and causes undue damage, he shall bear criminal responsibility; however, he shall be given a mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.
 第一款中关于避免本人危险的规定,不适用于职务上、业务上负有特定责任的人。
The provisions of the first paragraph of this Article with respect to averting danger to oneself shall not apply to a person who is charged with special responsibility in his post or profession.
第二节 犯罪的预备、未遂和中止
SECTION 2 PREPARATION FOR A CRIME, CRIMINAL ATTEMPT AND DISCONTINUATION
 第二十二条 为了犯罪,准备工具、制造条件的,是犯罪预备。
Article 22 Preparation for a crime refers to the preparation of the instruments or the creation of the conditions for a crime.
  对于预备犯,可以比照既遂犯从轻、减轻处罚或者免除处罚。
An offender who prepares for a crime may, in comparison with one who completes the crime, be given a lighter or mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.
 第二十三条 已经着手实行犯罪,由于犯罪分子意志以外的原因而未得逞的,是犯罪未遂。
Article 23 A criminal attempt refers to a case where an offender has already started to commit a crime but is prevented from completing it for reasons independent of his will.
  对于未遂犯,可以比照既遂犯从轻或者减轻处罚。
An offender who attempts to commit a crime may, in comparison with one who completes the crime, be given a lighter or mitigated punishment.
 第二十四条 在犯罪过程中,自动放弃犯罪或者自动有效地防止犯罪结果发生的,是犯罪中止。
Article 24 Discontinuation of a crime refers to a case where, in the course of committing a crime, the offender voluntarily discontinues the crime or voluntarily and effectively prevents the consequences of the crime from occurring.
  对于中止犯,没有造成损害的,应当免除处罚;造成损害的,应当减轻处罚。
An offender who discontinues a crime shall, if no damage is caused, be exempted from punishment or, if any damage is caused, be given a mitigated punishment.
 第二十五条 共同犯罪是指二人以上共同故意犯罪。
Article 25 A joint crime refers to an intentional crime committed by two or more persons jointly.
  二人以上共同过失犯罪,不以共同犯罪论处;应当负刑事责任的,按照他们所犯的罪分别处罚。
A negligent crime committed by two or more persons jointly shall not be punished as a joint crime; however, those who should bear criminal responsibility shall be individually punished according to the crimes they have committed.
 第二十六条 组织、领导犯罪集团进行犯罪活动的或者在共同犯罪中起主要作用的,是主犯。
Article 26 A principal criminal refers to any person who organizes and leads a criminal group in carrying out criminal activities or plays a principal role in a joint crime.
  三人以上为共同实施犯罪而组成的较为固定的犯罪组织,是犯罪集团。
A criminal group refers to a relatively stable criminal organization formed by three or more persons for the purpose of committing crimes jointly.
  对组织、领导犯罪集团的首要分子,按照集团所犯的全部罪行处罚。
Any ringleader who organizes or leads a criminal group shall be punished on the basis of all the crimes that the criminal group has committed.
  对于第三款规定以外的主犯,应当按照其所参与的或者组织、指挥的全部犯罪处罚。
Any principal criminal not included in Paragraph 3 shall be punished on the basis of all the crimes that he participates in or that he organizes or directs.
 第二十七条 在共同犯罪中起次要或者辅助作用的,是从犯。
Article 27 An accomplice refers to any person who plays a secondary or auxiliary role in a joint crime.
  对于从犯,应当从轻、减轻处罚或者免除处罚。
An accomplice shall be given a lighter or mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment.
 第二十八条 对于被胁迫参加犯罪的,应当按照他的犯罪情节减轻处罚或者免除处罚。
Article 28 Anyone who is coerced to participate in a crime shall be given a mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment in the light of the circumstances of the crime he commits.
 第二十九条 教唆他人犯罪的,应当按照他在共同犯罪中所起的作用处罚。教唆不满十八周岁的人犯罪的,应当从重处罚。
Article 29 Anyone who instigates another to commit a crime shall be punished according to the role he plays in a joint crime.  Anyone who instigates a person under the age of 18 to commit a crime shall be given a heavier punishment.
  如果被教唆的人没有犯被教唆的罪,对于教唆犯,可以从轻或者减轻处罚。
If the instigated person has not committed the instigated crime, the instigator may be given a lighter or mitigated punishment.
第四节 单位犯罪
SECTION 4 CRIMES COMMITTED BY A UNIT
 第三十条 公司、企业、事业单位、机关、团体实施的危害社会的行为,法律规定为单位犯罪的,应当负刑事责任。
Article 30 Any company, enterprise, institution, State organ, or organization that commits an act that endangers society, which is prescribed by law as a crime committed by a unit, shall bear criminal responsibility.
  
第三十一条 单位犯罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员判处刑罚。本法分则和其他法律另有规定的,依照规定。
Article 31 Where a unit commits a crime, it shall be fined, and the persons who are directly in charge and the other persons who are directly responsible for the crime shall be given criminal punishment.  Where it is otherwise provided for in the Specific Provisions of this Law or in other laws, those provisions shall prevail.
  第三十二条 刑罚分为主刑和附加刑。
Article 32 Punishments are divided into principal punishments and supplementary punishments.




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